I'm sure Apple would blame the jailbroken phone. The whole reason why they keep the environment locked down in the first place is to protect to user experience which is what they are really selling, and, let's face it, that is exactly what makes us OS X fans-that user experience. As much as I would love to have their systems more open and I love my hacked OS X running on my Mini 9 and 10v, I love that user experience and as soon as iPhones become available in my area I will be first in line the day my Alltel provider's sign changes to AT&T.
I really doubt it has anything to do with your phone being one of the jailbroken phones. You are not experiencing the same failure across all platforms and it is not being reported by users of other jailbroken phones. I would suspect that there is something that has gone amiss somewhere in the background in OS X. It doesn't happen often, but it does happen. You mentioned a desktop computer but didn't mention whether or not if it was a OS X or Windows box. If it is running OS X and is not experiencing the same error then there is your answer for sure. It would have to be something has gone awry in the background and it would probably be easier to do perform a re-install of OS X.
You don't have to wipe your partition though. All you have to do when selecting the partition to install OS X to is click on the partition you have already installed it to then in the bottom left corner click on the 'Options' button. A large dialogue box will appear and click on the radio button next to 'Archive and Install'. This will move all of the previous system and library files into new directory that will be ignored on boot up and install new files to the 'System' and 'Library' folders. It will also copy over your documents folders, users, and settings. You boot up back to where you were before and be ready to go again in short order