First off, even if you can't get Windows booting again, there's a good chance that your files are fine.
A 2.5" SATA-USB enclosure/dock/adapter should enable you to access the files, but if your desktop is modern, you don't even need to buy one. The 2.5" SATA drives used in most laptops, including the 10v, use the same SATA data and power connectors as the 3.5" SATA drives used in desktops.
So, you can power your desktop down, open it up, and plug the drive in (you might need to temporarily unplug your optical drive to free up a SATA data cable). You won't be able to securely mount the 2.5" in the desktop (without an adapter), but you can just be careful with it for the short period when it's hooked up.